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By Ronald L Bennett




To understand why a basic assumptions in modern times is wrong we must first travel back 2,400 years in time to one of the first recorded assumption's that Greek philosophers Plato, Democritus, and Aristotle made. By starting from Plato's "Theory of Forms," Democritus "Atomic Theory," and Aristotle's "Aether," we will find a simplified answer to why things behave the way they do. We may find out why we have a the duality of light that propagates through space, what makes special relativity so special, and what really is gravity. As we gathered more information from others along the way, we complicated the process of finding the answers to all these questions. We added new assumptions, new assumption begot new more complicated theories developing into more complicated math and infinities theorems leading to the mess we currently are in.

Now that I have a forum to express my thoughts I hope you will find that it isn't as complicated as we are making it out to be. I hope to convince you that if we start from the first assumptions by these Greek philosophers we will have the solution to most everything that deals with the physical laws of matter, energy, and the interactions between particles. If you stick around long enough examining these basic Greek assumptions I hope towards the end of this journey you will find the answer to one of the most compelling questions that deceived humans for thousands of years, what is our universe really made out of?
Greek Paradox

Plato theory of Forms asserted that non-material abstract forms (ideas) and not sensations process the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. Democritus atomists held that atoms are the smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed, and that they move about in an infinite void space... something that cannot be divided further. Our current definition of atom was thought to be Democritus atom but once we looked closer we found more subatomic particles, more divisible parts. In the late 1800's the name for atom composed of a nucleus of protons, neutrons surrounded by a electron cloud was such a good way to talk about chemistry helping establishing the periodic table that the name atom stuck, but it wasn't Democritus's smallest indivisible particle.

By starting with Plato we will see where it leads us 2,400 years later. Now since the Forms (ideas) are the causes of everything else, Plato supposed that there elements are the elements of all things. Accordingly the material principle is the Great and Small and the essence is the One, since the numbers are derived from the Great and Small by participation in the One We may interpret this several different ways but I will use it to justify my thought process by employing a modernistic meaning to something that would most probably be unimaginable 2,400 years ago.

Information Age

Binary numbers which are base two numbers with the numbers 0 and 1 are the basis of modern computer language today. We use them in many different ways yet these number's can run some of the most complex equations and programs ever developed if set in packages called binary code. We do this using an electromagnetic on and off switch, 1 on, 0 off. Using these numbers we can sit in our place of worship and create a complicated 3D model in a CAD-CAM system, using only binary numbers. We send that program of the model we made over the internet anywhere on our planet, the person sitting by their computer halfway around the world prints out a 3D model from the downloaded program sent over the internet.

A 3D solid object was created by a binary number system that only existed in the mind of the engineer who modeled it before they teleported it thousands of miles away turning 0's and 1's into a solid object with mass that occupies space. The mass was already there we just re-arranged it into the form of the model we wanted printed out. The engineer didn't know each bit-code however he or she knew the symbols, letters or instructions that each bit represented to make the model. With today technology if we lived on another world light years away we can do the same thing teleporting it through space from earth, it's as though we teleported at the speed of light through space a solid object with mass using only 0's, 1's.

Remembering that binary means two numbers, how do we get one number out of two numbers? It's the one action that causes the other action in order to register the binary numbers as if there occupying the same state. One natural number with the help of the void, 0 number, can theoretically make the elements of all things.

In the early 1900's the scientific community threw out a perfectly good Greek assumption, the aether, and replaced it with what they thought was a perfectly good geometric assumption because of Einstein's work. Later on in the same century the discovery of the effects caused by something we call dark energy and dark matter should have made us rethink this downgraded aether assumption. The aether assumption was held as one of the cornerstones of physics for over 2,300 years before its downgrade. I hope to show you that these two forms (ideas) can coexist with each other because one is just the 4D mathematical geometric manifestation of the others existence.

The Fifth Element

The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle postulated by the Peccei-Quinn theory in 1977 to resolve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). If axions exist and have low mass within a certain range, they are of interest as a possible component of cold dark matter.

Flash back 2,400 years to what Democritus and the atomist (Leucippus followers) were saying, atoms are the smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed, and that they move about in an infinite void space. In the information age we have the power of the binary numbers fundamental on and off switch. With this simple binary code number system we can make complicated programs that bring down dictators in the middle east, predict the weather, beat the smartest chess master, and teleport over empty space a program of an object that assembles matter into most any form that we like.

According to the most popular belief in science today every corner of our universe lies some very strange dark undetectable particles that they call dark matter that gives off what they believe is dark energy. There not sure that one is related to the other but they can't explain how our spiral galaxy can stay together without it. This is done with some particle with a very small amount of mass that they believed to be very cold, some scientist think it is the axion.

In Plato's Timaeus (St-55c) Plato described aether as "that which God used in the delineation of the universe." aether is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. "fifth element" However, a series of increasingly complex experiments had been carried out in the late 1800s like the Michelson-Morley experiment in an attempt to detect the motion of earth through the aether, and had failed to do so. Lorentz ether theory, LET, a more elegant solution to how the motion of an absolute aether could be undetectable (length contraction), Because of the same mathematical formalism it is not possible to distinguish between LET and SR by experiment but if their equations were correct, Albert Einstein's 1905 special theory of relativity could generate the same mathematics without referring to an aether at all. This led most physicists to conclude that the classical notion of aether was not a useful concept.

Thus Lorentz proposed length contraction and time transformation before special theory of relativity. In other words Lorentz so elegantly explained the aether that what replace the aether, SR, was helped explained because of Lorentz work. Funny how that worked, finally explain the aether so well that you replace it after searching for 2,300 years with something else. Of course they didn't know when they accepted general and special theory of relativity as a standard model dismissing the aether that we would have this dark energy and dark matter crisis to deal with 100 years later. After we dismissed the aether, we built our science around general and special relativity and the standard model (particle physics findings). In our search to find the answer we had several other problems to solve like how can we merge relativity with the standard model, why are some equations built around infinities, why are virtual particles popping in and out of space, and what is dark energy, dark matter?

With starry eyed cosmologist, physicists and astronomers now talking about dark energy, dark matter, virtual particles and vacuum energy aren't we back talking about the same thing, the aether. Depends on who you ask Dark matter is estimated to constitute 84% of the matter in the universe and 23% of the mass-energy. Dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass-energy of the universe. Dark matter and dark energy make up approximately 96 percent of all the mass-energy in our universe, one may be the equal and opposite of the other. How can we leave so much mass-energy and matter out of quantum field studies when we talk about our microscopic and macroscopic universe, our mortal existence is dependent on it.

Michelson-Morley experiment in an attempt to detect the motion of earth through the aether, failed to do so. In 1887 they didn't know what they were in for because even by today standards we can't detect the aether, dark matter, dark energy, whatever you want to call it. So how can you disprove an assumption back in the late 1800's when you can't even do it in 2012. We are pretty sure the earth, our sun, and our galaxy is moving through something dark and mysterious that up to now is undetectable even with our most precise instruments. How long did it take us to detect a particle that can go through the earth without hitting anything like the neutrino, now we have to detect something even smaller and more elusive. The aether is like a gas that fills up space in all the voids of our universe even in the most dense matter. With this being said most of the aether, gluons, is unlike gas since it doesn't have mass unless mass is present therefore there is no thermal interaction, no pressure, just vacuum pressure and vacuum energy.

Making the Perfect Particle




If someone, preferably god, built an a-particle that is in every corner of our universe, a small dark indivisible mysterious particle that has mass and is responsible for the way we view light, this magical particle can make all other particles including gods other said particle, the Higgs boson, what powers would she give it?

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale, macroscopic quantum phenomena. Doesn't gravity do the same, becomes more apparent on a macroscopic scale? Bosonic particles, which include the photon as well as atoms such as helium-4, are allowed to share quantum states with each other resulting in a new form of matter. 100% bosons occupy the lowest quantum state in a true Bose–Einstein condensate.

A proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark, with the rest mass of the quarks thought to contribute only about 1% of the proton's mass. The remainder of the proton mass is due to the kinetic energy of the quarks and to the energy of the gluon fields that bind them together.



What would this a-particle resemble, Plato's "One" particle that makes all others but is very shy about it, and at the same time is In Aristotle's system aether had no qualities (was neither hot, cold, wet, or dry), was incapable of change (with the exception of change of place). The particle would have to also be Democritus smallest indivisible particle, the smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed. The particle on a microscopic scale must be antisocial, meaning it doesn't like its own kind making it a true independent particle. We have a noble gas like that, Helium-4 that doesn't like anyone, it hardly ever hooks up, (chemically bound) with other atoms no matter how hot or cold it gets. Now, in order to penetrate all things it should be a superfluid, helium-4 helium II phase change is a liquid superfluid when cooled below 2.17 Kelvin. Helium II remains a superfluid in a vacuum when it is with at least 80 other helium-4 atoms cooled to below 2.17 K.

While we are making the a-particle why not turn it into a superconducting Bose-Einstein Condensate, BEC, that accepts the electric field and expels all magnetic fields. Helium-4 Phase change to Helium II is a member of the BEC family of condensate and is a superconductor obeying the Bose statistics. But unlike any other particle we know of the a-particle must remain in the same state no matter how hot or cold it gets, unless that state is disturbed (was neither hot, cold, wet, or dry), was incapable of change. A massless particle like the gluon would not thermally conduct heat that's why space in between stars and galaxies are extremely cold.

Unmasking the Photon

Examples include experiments that have demonstrated interference between condensates due to wave-particle duality. In 1999, Danish physicist Lene Vestergaard Hau led a team from Harvard University which succeeded in slowing a beam of light to about 17 metres per second. The creation of bright matter wave solitons from Bose condensates confined to one dimension, and the slowing of light pulses to very low speeds using electromagnetically induced transparency.

The Universe is one big playground for a particle that I called the a-particle that is most likely the axion, (a gluon with mass). The axion is so small and illusive it cannot be detected, it is so dark and mysterious we dare not call its field an aether for fear of being beaten up, but we can call it dark matter and dark energy without fear of reprisal. The only place academics will allow their students to talk about an aether-like field is in the halls of a Physic's professor's quantum field theory class.

I may soon loose you here when I start talking about what kind of vampire like dark instrument of the night sky we have created with our imaginary a-particle. The perfect a-particle is a particle that tries to maintain an equal distance away from each other throughout the universe but at the same time causes the effect that we call the BEC on helium-4 atoms. The a-particle may resemble a massless force carrying particle like a gluon in intergalactic and interstellar space, but morphs into axions the closer to mass it gets.

Visualize how light propagates through space, light's magnetic field is perpendicular to its electric field. A superconductor separates the magnetic field from the electric field allowing electrons to flow freely through the superconductor without resistance while the magnetic field has to go around the superconductor, isn't this similar to how light propagates through space?

Alternatively, the additional atoms could trigger the rapid collapse of the entire condensate. Here, we’re talking about the possibility of observing all the atoms in this coherent entity collapsing together at once,” Hulet says. “This is similar to what happens in a supernova." Theoreticians predict that such an outcome is possible because of a process called macroscopic quantum tunneling, which makes possible a wholesale transformation of the condensate from a low-density gas to a higher-density state.

A new way to look at propagation of light is, when a thermal heated electron moves down from its higher energy level to a lower energy level it gives off a axion / photon rapid collapse of the entire condensate between the higher and lower energy levels, The electron is unstable in the higher energy level so it moves to the lower energy level collapsing some of the dense axions to form a denser axion between the two levels. We see a flash of light and record this as light by its electromagnetic signature. When this happens the axions and or the other particles trapped in the condensate collapse into a point-like denser particle occupying a single pointlike state, all the atoms in this coherent entity collapsing together at once, that gives off what we see as a photon.



The photons now has several e+e- charged pairs which add up to 0 as a result a charged electromagnetic field is induced in the bosons around it. The photon accelerates itself toward the speed of light by the turning its mass (supernova) into charged kinetic energy, (less energy photons), while it repulses the surrounding field to accelerate through the universe wide weak magnetic field to the speed of light. By its nature dark matter, aether, is our universes ad-hock light emitting particle accelerator with the help of that initial collapsed burst of mass that turned into energy.

Relativistic quantum mechanics tells us that photons are constantly splitting into pairs of oppositely-charged particles (usually e+e- pairs). The higher the energy the denser the point-like particle the more collapsed matter that we call the photon, the more charged kinetic energy e+e- pairs is stored the shorter the wavelength the higher the frequency due to length contraction and time transformation. When the photon accelerates through the boson field its presents is shown by the superconducting-like particles near it as it passes by. When the photons e+e- charged pairs passes the similar nearby bosonic particles the repulsive magnetic field flows around them, the charge from the photon even though it added up to 0 is felt and momentarily induced in the bosonic field as it passes by. This effect is the illusionary light wave duality function that we observe as a magnetic field that is perpendicular to its electric field.

A way the axions may become momentarily visible is that they are misidentify as a part of a wave function when the e+e- charge pairs in the photon that creates its permanent magnetic field induces an electric field on the closest axion at the time of measurement as the photon passes it, as a result the wrong axions are misidentified as the photon. This would help explain the duality wave particle function of light. Both photons, and axions are said to be boson force carriers, photons are said to carry the electromagnetic interaction but instead, do photons only carry a charge that its magnetic field induces into a wave though a repulsive electrically conductive boson field?

The spooky effect," why two entangled photons originating from the same point in space are influenced by the bosonic field that they pass hence the line of bosons (perfect condensate) extended outwards in opposite directions along the path of the photons are all entangled with them. Therefore the entangled photons are marching to the same beat as the condensate around them, you would expect this to happen in a BEC. As a result if you force one photon to turn left over a distance the other entangled photon will turn right, unless someone tries to measure it and breaks the bosonic line of communications.

Programming the Big Bang

Vortices in Bose–Einstein condensates are also currently the subject of analogue gravity research, studying the possibility of modeling black holes and their related phenomena in such environments in the lab.

Here is where it gets a little crazy, if it wasn't crazy enough for you before, I violated some of the preconceived notions in physics already. I rattled a lot of people's brains here but I started out this journey to prove that the assumption's of the Plato's One is the elements of all things that Democritus indivisible atom, and Aristotle's aether, were the right assumptions by using the standard model as a tool.

In the beginning everything was made of all the same stuff, an infinite number of the smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed, super condensed pointlike massless gluons in their lowest quantum state. The Big Bang, a supper-bosonic singularity, made only of gluons that made most all of the particles we know and love today.

As the gluons inflated outwards it morphed from bonding with its kind right before the big bang to repelling each other outwards in a plane in all direction right after the big bang. When the particles couldn't move outwards fast enough within a flat plane it moved into all other directions and dimensions forming at least a 4 dimensional very hot flat universe after the gluons morphed into axions and at least a fifth dimension, BEC informational superhighway.

The axions moved outwards faster than light in all direction turning particles with a small amount of mass, axions, into other heavier subatomic particles that we know and love today, that is because it broke the speed limit of the field that it traveled through creating matter by absorbing gluons to make their own denser gluon field, mass. Because the axion now has a near zero mass most of them morphed in that super-dense field to larger particles with mass when they slowed down below light speed. Today in a particle accelerator a particle with mass accelerated close to the speed of light, as you approach light speed the mass approaches infinity, some of that mass decayed into quarks / hadrons. So in an instant an infinite amount of matter and antimatter was created composed mostly of dense subatomic particles from gluons morphing into axions.

The collision of matter with its evil twin, antimatter, increased the amount of energy in the universe by the destruction of most all of the antimatter further expanding the universe reducing matter back down to pointlike gluons, photons. The remaining axions provided a field for all the matter in the universe to expand in and to help form atom's and the propagation of light. As long as the universe retains the quantum field created by the axions and its more massive cousins, +/- W boson, Z boson, Higgs boson the matter created during the big bang would continue accelerating outwards and not break up until the cosmic background radiation black body spectrum cools back down closer to absolute zero. The cooler it gets the longer the wavelength of the background radiation.

As the Universe began to expand the chemical elements of the periodic table were created from the smaller subatomic particles. The expansion of the universe kept accelerated outwards because of fusion, nuclear decay, and black holes releasing the denser packed gluons / axions in the atoms back into the universe increasing the fields outward expansion. The released gluon / axions that were stuck by its compression between orbiting electrons in the nucleus of atoms or inside other more massive bosons, protons, neutrons, and electron clouds is released by the week nuclear interaction thus continuing to feed the expansion of the universe lowering the amount of matter in the universe and increasing the amount of dark energy and dark matter as it expands outwards.

What is Gravity?

Quantum field theory states that all fundamental fields, such as the electromagnetic field, must be quantized at each and every point in space. A field in physics may be envisioned as if space were filled with interconnected vibrating balls and springs, and the strength of the field were like the displacement of a ball from its rest position.



The geometry we get from the curvature of space time, gravity, is from the bosonic field influence of the nearby mass. The more mass the denser bosonic field around the mass the closer they are packed to each other, a form of length contraction of space around the mass which forces the bosons closer to one another.


As shown by Gerardus't Hoof, strong interaction of the standard model, QCD, possess a non-trivial vacuum structure that in principle permits the violation of the combined symmetries of charge conjugation and parity, collectively known as CP. (While the neutron is an electrically neutral particle, nothing prevents charge separation within the neutron itself.) The laws of electromagnetism (both classical and quantum) are invariant under this transformation: if each charge q were to be replaced with a charge −q and the directions of the electric and magnetic fields were reversed, the dynamics would preserve the same form. In the language of quantum field theory, charge conjugation transforms: In the Standard Model, the Higgs field consists of two neutral and two charged component field. Both of the charged components and one of the neutral fields are Goldstone bosons. which act as the longitudinal third-polarization components of the massive W+, W-, and Z bosons.

The bosonic atmosphere in and around mass affects other nearby objects and pulls each object toward each other by the strength of its entire field, condensate, connected to those objects, we call that gravity. The bosonic atmosphere is made of bosons that interact with the higgs field and extends out into stellar and interstellar space. In a condensate the heavier the boson the closer to mass it gets, similar to air pressure, the heavier the gas the lower in the atmosphere it resides. When an object leaves earth it takes its boson condensate field with it that is strongly embedded around and in the mass of that object.

One of the property of a BEC such as Helium II phase change is that if you move one helium atom most of the other atoms tend to want to move in step the same way (occupy the same quantum state like soldiers in a parade seen from a distance moving in step). With mass from a pointlike center of an object pulling on the fabric of space-time made of the boson condensate extending out to infinity in all directions we get gravity, thereby making gravity aether dependant. The gluon / axions / higgs shows signs of what we perceive as diamagnetic toward each other and paramagnetic to all mass by using masses magnetic moment spin and charge as a force to attract matter to one another. It does this though its super-information highway, condensate, as a result all matter and antimatter are attracted by the bosonic field toward the center of gravity of the each other's mass. Therefore the effects of gravity's force is more distinct on a macroscopic scale than a microscopic scale such as you would expect out of a BEC.

Gluon - The Indivisible Atom

Since we reduce gravity and electromagnetic force down to magnetic moment, charge and spin in an boson condensate aether field, let's look at the other two forces left to combine. In an atom the weak interaction, weak nuclear, may be the result of a sudden collapse of the bosonic condensate within the nucleus of an atom creating a small supernova-like explosion-implosion releasing radiation because of the dense compressed condensate collapse. In fusion the implosion is strong enough to fuse two atoms together because of the very dense compressed matter in the center of stars. Whereas the strong interaction, strong force, may be the result of how much charge pairs are in the core of the particle creating a very strong localized attractive force between charged particles. This charge interaction results in a stronger mass force holding quarks together from its charge attraction. A super dense gluon / axion field is extremely strong because there's less space to keep particles apart therefore binding the particles together more strongly.



Conclusion

As suggested binary number system composed of only 0, 1 turned into some of the most complicated programs ever written, as a result the principle of the construction of our universe may have started from a similar basic premise. Consider a collection of N noninteracting particles, which can each be in one of two quantum states, and . If the two states are equal in energy, each different configuration is equally likely. Like a program written with binary numbers the gluon became more complicated as it expanded out from its singularity to form our universe to give us light, mass and life's ability to reason.

In our passion to accept special theory of relativity as a model we overlooked the aether. The reason why SR needs no aether to explain propagation of light is that we are using the same 1's and 0's from the aether throughout the universe to program SR, Because of the same mathematical formalism it is not possible to distinguish between. Lorentz ether theory and SR by experiment. The reason we can see to the far reaches of the universe through the aether is because most of the bosons in the voids of space have no mass, after all they were all said to be compressed into a singularity at one time smaller than the period at the end of this sentence.

The geometry of SR is a precise geometrical formulation because of the aether. As a result general theory of relativity, special theory of relativity, and classical physics would not exist today without the aether, neither would everything else.

Acknowledgement

I started writing this essay over one month before the Higgs boson was officially found, as of July 4th 2012 it has been documented to be close to having a 5 sigma degree of acceptance by some of the scientific community that worked at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Congratulation to all the scientist who have worked so hard to make this happen. This preliminary extraordinary finding helps further my essays cause that there is an aether, Bose-Einstein Condensate, that programs matter and permeates all of space.


References

All bold italicized references in essay is from Wikipedia Encyclopedia. All images and illustrations not credited on image were created by Ron Bennett.

[00000000] Plato, "Theory of Forms," "Timaeus (St-55c)," 428 - 347 BC, Democritus, "Atomic Theory,"
460 BC – 370 BC, Aristotle, "Aether," 384 BC – 322 BC, most original works found in
Greece, or burned up in Alexandria

[00000001] Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon, 1892, "The Relative Motion of the earth and the Aether",

Zittingsverlag Akad. V. Wet. 1: 74–79

[00000010] Lederman, Leon, and Teresi, Dick, "God Particle," 1993, Dell Publishing, New York, New York

[00000011] Davies, Paul, "The New Physics," 1996, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

[00000100] Haliday, David and Resnick, Robert, "Physics Part I & II," 1966, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

[00000101] Einstein, Albert, "Relativity, The Special and General Theory," 1961, Three Rivers Press, New York, New York

[00000110] Al-Khalili, Jim, "Quantum, A Guide for the Perplexed," 2003, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Saint Martin's Lane, London, UK

[00000111] C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett, J. J. Tollett, and R. G. Hulet (1995). "Evidence of Bose – Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Gas with Attractive Interactions". Physical Review
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[00001000] E.A. Donley, N.R. Claussen, S.L. Cornish, J.L. Roberts, E.A. Cornell, and C.E. Wieman (2001). "Dynamics of collapsing and exploding Bose–Einstein condensates". Nature 412 (6844): 295–299

[00001001] Ginsberg, Garner and Hau (8 February 2007). "Coherent control of optical information with matter wave dynamics" (abstract). Nature 445 (7128): 623–626

[00001011] Gerardus't Hoof, "elucidating the quantum structure of the electroweak interactions in physics". 1999 Nobel prize

Thus, once again ,,empty” space appears as endowed with physical properties, i.e., no longer as physically empty, as seemed to be the case according to Special Relativity. One can thus say that the ether is resurrected in the General theory of Relativity, though in a more sublimated form.”

A. Einstein, Grundgedanken und Methoden der Relativitatstheorie in ihrer Entwicklung dargestellt, (Morgan Manuscript) Einstein Archives 2070.