Oxygen makes up approximately 48 percent by volume of the moons soil and rocks as a result there's plenty of oxygen on the moon you just have to mine it. To make water all you need is hydrogen. A way to make water economically is to carry hydrogen to the moon in place of water. Liquid hydrogen is 14 times lighter than water for example one liter of liquid hydrogen weighs only 70 grams. How to make water is to extract out the oxygen from the soil using advance mining techniques similar to the one recently published in a Nature paper as reported here.
By using the hydrogen in fuel cell's and mixing it with oxygen similar to ones in some experimental cars that produce 100 kilowatts of power then condensing it down from vapor to water we can get an average of 0.32 pounds of water per minute of operations from the exhaust resulting in over 2 gallons of water per hour. This way of producing water may be cheaper than trying to mine it directly on the moon.
The added benefit from the process of making water from the reaction of the fuel cells hydrogen with oxygen is that we are producing 100 Kilowatts of electricity.
Our Matter Filled Universe
Two universes, Matter and Anti-matter separated by a huge worm hole. One universe is feeding the other one; one is in the process of collapsing while the other one is in the process of expanding. This is repeated as the one that was expanded starts to collapse then the other one starts to expand, back and forth for eternity.
Are we alone in our solar system?
Life began in earth's oceans over 3.7 billion years ago it didn't take hold on land until 700 million years ago. Our outer solar system is where we found evidence of water ice, water geysers and organic chemistry on ice covered water worlds, all the necessary marker for life as we know it.
Europa ice covered ocean, and the water geysers of Enceladus are just a beginning of more discoveries to come. As been suggested Titan is now being considered as yet another one of those ice covered water worlds that exist in our outer solar system, the list goes on and on which may also soon include a couple of planet size moons of Jupiter's, Ganymede and Callisto.
We are looking for life on a habitable worlds similar to Earths near a star which is a mistake. We are now finding out that a ice covered water-world can exist anywhere in space. Life exist at the bottom of our oceans where there is less light reaching this area than there is light from the sun in deep space far beyond Pluto.
We now know where there is a large gravitational field such as exist at our gas giants that give these worlds enough heat through the friction of the constant tidal tugging over billions of years such that exist at Io, the most volcanic world in our solar system that has been linked to tidal forces. There could be life under a thick layer of ice with the right rich organic compounds that exist in a much greater amounts in the frigid parts of our solar system.
Aliens visiting our planet may be from one of our outer solar systems ice covered water worlds. The aliens may not be looking for a nice warm spot to land on the surface but are looking for a nice comfortable spot that exist only at the bottom, abyss, of our oceans such as in the movie the "Abyss." The flying alien spaceships are only seen coming and going then classified as a UFO's, but our surface dwelling world is too toxic to spend much time because they are, fish out of water -- it's like humans spending time outside their shell in the vacuum of space orbiting the earth.
Reclassifying the term "Habitable Zone"
Are we alone in the Universe, that’s a question that was asked since the first humans walked on the surface of the earth and still perplexes scientist today. Today other relatively new question modern humans have asked with more powerful scientific tools available is “If we look for life in our universe where would we find it?”
Currently scientists are zeroing in on a place called the habitable zone, a narrow location from a planets local star for water to form and run for billions of years similar to earth's history. The location of a rocky water world like earths would be restricted to a narrow zone away from a star. The model location of a habitable zone potential life barring planet would be dependent on several variables which include the local stars size, mass, age, radiation, organic availability and intensity for life to prosper there, or so it goes.
Jupiter and Saturn if viewed from another star system 20 light years away would be considered by us outside the habitable zone as humans has thought for hundreds of years before Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini. We now know that these planets moons have the most probable chance for life outside of earth in our solar system yet if we viewed them from 20 light years away using our current understanding of habitable zone we would dismiss them as a non-factor because of their location from our local star. Yet these potential life bearing worlds have something that all things with mass have, gravitational influences which create tidal forces on their neighboring worlds. Strong tidal forces causes friction added to the natural radioactive decay of its interior which promotes the heating of these worlds internally, in the case of these outer solar system worlds is enough heat to replace the external heating from a close stars solar energy.
What makes these outer solar system worlds so unique is that most of them don’t have much of an atmosphere or external heat source because they are far away from the suns solar influence. In the current idea of a perfect place to look for a world teaming with life is one that has an atmosphere that can support water on its surface. In our outer solar system water cant form on the surface because of the extreme cold surface temperature as a result we may only find life two of three places. Lack of a substantial atmosphere on most of these worlds restricts our search to finding life in the oceans below the ice cover and subterranean life in the muck below the ocean. On Earth life can be found everywhere we search, high mountains to the bottom of the oceans, two miles underground and even in the Antarctica.
The one ingredient we find in our outer solar system that these worlds are teaming with is organic chemistry where the inner planets other than earth barely have organic chemicals that can be traced on its surface, this is important because all life on earth are carbon base life forms. This lack of organics is partially blamed on the intense radiation coming from the sun, the earth's magnetosphere blocks most of the solar wind while it atmosphere blocks the intense UV’s, low energy neutrons, and x-rays.
Our moon and our sun tidal forces has been blamed by some scientist for keeping the earth iron core heated up. The moon is 384,000 kilometers from earth which makes its actual tidal effect on earth about ½ the gravitational field on Phobos, a relatively small moon of Mars. In fact IO the hottest localized heated world in our solar system is gravitationally locked by Jupiter but hundreds of thousands of kilometers away its other Jovian moons tidal tug of war such as Ganymede, Callisto, Europa with Jupiter have been blamed on the volcanic effect on IO through tidal heating.
There are some signs of a brown Dwarf star or Jupiter size planet in our Ort cloud slinging into our inner solar system 20 percent of the comets that we view as predicted by John Matese of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette with approximately a mass of 1.4 times than Jupiter. Although this hypothesis hasn't been validated by the scientific community yet the new space telescope, WISE, launched Dec. 14 2009 should be able to spot it if there is one of that size out there. Imagine if there are planet size moons of this hypothesis Jupiter size world like the ones orbiting Jupiter the tidal heat source could support an ice covered water world similar to Europa or Enceladus that scientist claim is the most likely place in our solar system to find life. In fact Europa or Enceladus gets more radiated heat from the surface of Jupiter and Saturn than they get from our sun. These two ice covered water worlds are just two of the many of our solar systems planetary moons now postulated to have liquid water inside their rocky ice covered cocoon.
In other words where there is strong enough tidal forces to cause a continuous heating of moons or planets there could be life. We may not find it on the surface but covered up under several kilometers of ice like extremophiles in the oceans below the North Pole. Tidal forces can occur anywhere even out in interstellar space between stars all it takes is one to two large objects, or two objects sufficient close enough to cause internal heating orbiting each other like Pluto and Chiron. Therefore we may find an abundance of life on other worlds on our way to these yet to find habitable zone planets and not find life on the habitable planet once we got there.
Remember intelligent life on another world may be aquatic marine life not surface dwellers like us. The obstacle to transition for aquatic life form to explore our universe would be much more difficult then surface dwelling creatures like humans, but if they have billions of years evolving then that bearer can be broken just like humans breaking the obstacle of space to explore the moon, from air to vacuum. We humans had it easy, Aquatic life forms in our outer solar system would have to go several steps further.
Most all the evidence for life bearing organic compounds are in our outer solar system. Except for earth, most all the water and water ice that exist is in our solar system. We have discovered several different ice covered water worlds in our outer solar system. We know that tidal forces can heat these worlds so oceans can lay beneath a sheet of surface ice such as Europa. We now know that you don't even need tidal forces to heat a world, internal nuclear furnaces have been found to heat small asteroids far away from large tidal effecting gravity wells and the sun causing volcanism on worlds so small that gravity can't hold the material on it once it erupts.
So to find intelligent life off this pebble we call earth look for all the markers of life as we know it, organic compounds and water. Where do you find that outside earth, far away from the sun in our outer solar system...
By Ron Bennett
Abstract Presented to DARPAR 100 Year Starship Study Public Symposium
We have the technology today for a self sustaining exploration of our closest stars within the 100 year Starship time frame as the name suggests. However we don't have the right propulsion system to make this work with all the ones talked about today. I am suggesting a new type of propulsion system that can take us to our nearest star using only the energy and mass that we left our solar system with and most importantly using today's technology. Because of the immense distances as suggested once we start our journey we cannot slow down on our way to pick up more fuel or sustenance to sustain a colony of humans.
To reach our closest star within 5 light years away, today most self sustaining propulsion systems cannot rely on the advanced ion propulsion systems that we are now developing because the amount of mass that is needed to feed these plasma eating system's would be more massive than what we can take with us. Solar sails depends on our sun's photons for its initial push as a result cannot get us to our closest star within 100 years because the sun's push diminishes the further away from the sun it gets.
A Self Propelling Light Emitting Starship, SPLES, uses the deflection of photons reflected off of a targeted light mass sail material area, similar to what a solar sail uses. The light emitted from the light source can cover 10 times less area per m² than a solar sail pushed by the sun at earth distance therefore the surface area of the sail can be greatly reduced. To lighten the load in the vacuum of space we don't need a glass enclosing vacuum tube for a lightbulb-like energy source to work, most of space is in a vacuum. To lesson the mass of the light source the filament can be made of carbon and the insulator made from aerogel.
By using a large continuous power source like a traveling-wave fission reactor that can sustain generating electrical energy for the one hundred year voyage without stopping to pick up fuel, we will have a constant energy source to speed the craft up closer to the speed of light than any other current proposed propulsion system. The initial push from the light will be minimal, similar to an ion propulsion system, however the exhaust speed of this craft as it slowly accelerates towards the stars is the speed of light. Although an object made of mass according to the current laws of physics cannot travel the speed of light a SPLES can get us much closer to light speed than any proposed propulsion system